Typical Legionary Equipment

Regular soldiers were outfitted with a:

  • loin cloth (subligar or subligaculum)
  • tunic (tunica)
  • cummerbund (fascia ventralis): It was worn over the tunic but beneath the waist belt.
  • belt (balteus): It consisted of separate belts for the pugio and gladius with a leather apron that hung down in front. The alternative was a single aproned belt for the pugio and a baldric for the gladius.
  • arming shirt (subarmalis)
  • scarf (focale): To protect the neck against chaffing from armour.
  • leather trousers (bracae): They were typically worn by standard bearers.
  • hobnailed sandals (caligae)
  • cloak (sagum, which was a heavy cold weather cloak, or a paenula)

Armour included:

  • a helmet (cassis)
  • body armour (lorica segmentata, hamata , plumata or squamata)
  • arm guard (manica)
  • shin guards/greaves (ocreae)

Armaments consisted of a:

  • sword (gladius)
  • dagger (pugio)
  • two javelins (pila)
  • shield (scutum)

Other gear included a:

  • combination axe/pick (dolabra): This implement was employed to dig trenches, chop wood, etc.
  • palisade stakes (sudis also known as a vallus): These were used to secure the perimeter of marching camps (typically two per soldier).
  • pole for carrying equipment (furca) while on the march.
  • sachel/carrying bag (loculus)

Miscellaneous Items:

  • rope or leather: To transport turfs used to build a vallum.
  • saw/turf cutter/sickle: To cut turfs for vallum
  • wicker basket: To reposition earth during fossa
  • canteen
  • cooking utensils
  • toilet sponge on a stick (xylospongiumor tersorium): Found in latrines they were the precursor of toilet paper.